(Binswanger’s Disease; Senile Dementia; Binswanger’s Type; Vascular Cognitive Impairment; Arteriosclerotic Dementia; Atherosclerotic Disease)
Vascular dementia is a type of dementia. It is caused by disease of the small blood vessels in the brain. Parts of the brain called white matter along with grey matter are injured by multiple small strokes.
Healthy and Injured Brain Blood Vessels
Vascular dementia occurs when cells below the surface of the brain's cortex die because they do not receive enough oxygen and nutrients. This process is due to hardening and narrowing of the blood vessels within the white matter of the brain. This affects the blood supply.
Factors that may increase your chance of vascular dementia include:
In some people, symptoms appear suddenly with neurological changes like those caused by a stroke. Sometimes, the small strokes that lead to vascular dementia can happen without other symptoms. This makes the condition difficult to detect.
In some cases, symptoms may stabilize or even improve. However, in most people, the disease continues to progress.
The main symptoms of vascular dementia include:
- Progressive loss of intellectual abilities, processing speed, and cognitive and motor abilities
- Progressive memory loss
- Slow, unsteady walking
Other symptoms that may be present include:
- Personality changes
- Laughing, crying, or smiling during inappropriate times
- Difficulty speaking
- Swallowing difficulties
- Paralysis or weakness of one or both sides of the body
- Loss of interest in activities
- Tremors, loss of coordination, loss of trunk mobility
- Nighttime confusion
The symptoms of vascular dementia can resemble other causes of dementia, such as Alzheimer’s disease.
Your doctor will ask about your symptoms and medical history. A physical exam will be done.
Pictures may be taken of your brain and bodily structures. This can be done with:
Your heart and brain activity may be evaluated. This can be done with:
- Electrocardiogram (EKG)—to measure electrical activity of the heart
- Electroencephalogram (EEG)—to measure electrical activity of the brain
- Neuropsychological testing
Your bodily fluids may be tested. This can be done with blood tests.
There is no known cure for vascular dementia. Reducing risk factors and symptoms are important in trying to slow disease progression and improve quality of life.
Medications can be given to help limit or control symptoms and possibly slow progression of the disease. These include:
- Medications to control:
- Nimodipine—may help improve cognitive function in the short-term, but lacks evidence to support its long term use
- Medications used to treat Alzheimer's disease
There are no definitive guidelines to prevent vascular dementia. However, the following may help reduce your risk:
- If you smoke, talk to your doctor about how you can successfully quit .
- Eat a diet that is low in fat and low in salt .
- If you drink alcohol, do so only in moderation. Moderate alcohol intake is two drinks per day for men; one drink per day for women.
- Have your blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels checked at least once a year.
- If you have diabetes, maintain your blood glucose in your target range.
- Avoid low blood pressure. If you get lightheaded when you stand up, or have a history of fainting, talk to your doctor.
National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke
Alzheimer Society of Canada
Heart and Stroke Foundation of Canada
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Vascular dementia. Alzheimer's Association website. Available at: http://www.alz.org/dementia/vascular-dementia-symptoms.asp. Accessed July 29, 2013.
Vascular dementia. EBSCO DynaMed website. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed. Updated July 8, 2013. Accessed July 29, 2013.
Vascular dementia: A resource list. National Institute on Aging website. Available at: https://www.nia.nih.gov/alzheimers/vascular-dementia-resource-list. Accessed July 29, 2013.
9/3/2014 DynaMed's Systematic Literature Surveillance. Available at: http://www.ebscohost.com/dynamed: Wippold FJ, Brown DC, Broderick DF, et al. American College of Radiology (ACR) Appropriateness Criteria for dementia and movement disorders. Available at: http://www.acr.org/~/media/ACR/Documents/AppCriteria/Diagnostic/DementiaAndMovementDisorders.pdf. Updated 2014. Accessed September 3, 2014.
Last reviewed June 2015 by Rimas Lukas, MD
Please be aware that this information is provided to supplement the care provided by your physician. It is neither intended nor implied to be a substitute for professional medical advice. CALL YOUR HEALTHCARE PROVIDER IMMEDIATELY IF YOU THINK YOU MAY HAVE A MEDICAL EMERGENCY. Always seek the advice of your physician or other qualified health provider prior to starting any new treatment or with any questions you may have regarding a medical condition.